• Le 25 octobre 2018
    De 14:00 à 17:00
    Campus Tertre
    Bâtiment Censive, Salle du LLING, C228

  • 25 octobre 2018, 14h

    • Intervenant : Connor Youngberg (LLING)
    • Titre : Beyond the nasal coda: Investigating in Tokyo & Osaka Japanese
In this talk, I revisit the Japanese moraic or coda nasal, typically transcribed as . I consider the possibility that this segment is not a (phonological) consonant. Since McCawley (1968), it is generally accepted that the syllable templates of Japanese are CV, CVC or CVV. CVC syllables are limited, with permitted segments consisting only of a nasal segment (N) or the first portion of a geminate (Q).[1] N is analysed as a sparsely specified coda or a moraic segment consisting only of the feature [+nasal] (McCawley 1968, Itō 1987, Vance 2008; Labrune 2012). For phonologists, it is generally agreed that N is realised finally as a dorso-uvular glide (Vance 2008) e.g. [hoɰ̃] ‘book’, while N assimilates to a following consonant when found word-medially e.g. [hondana] ‘bookshelf’. Some have alternatively proposed that this segment surfaces as a syllabic nasal or nasal vowel in word-final contexts, while the segment in question remains a coda word-internally (Yoshida Y. 1999, Yoshida S. 2003).
In this talk, I review the discussion of N in the literature and reconsider the involvement of tone evidence and phonetic descriptions. I claim that alternative representations are necessary in order to capture facts beyond homorganicity. I propose that in Tokyo Japanese (TJ) a vowel-N sequence is best represented as a nasal vowel, while in Osaka Japanese (OJ) N is a syllabic consonant.
I first present a review of existing phonetic descriptions and existing instrumental work on TJ and OJ (Hattori, Yamamoto & Fujimura 1958, Nakano 1969:224, Ushijima & Hirose 1974, Vance 2008). In the following section, I present a summary of previous representations of N, drawing on Itō (1987), Yoshida Y. (1999), Yoshida S. (2003), Vance (2008), and Labrune (2012). I then examine the tone (or pitch accent) facts of N in TJ & OJ and I focus on N as a potential TBU and the involvement of N in tone spreading triggered by heavy syllables. N is shown to pattern with other vocalic segments and not with a geminate, which is an issue for any account which assumes that N is a coda consonant. I then propose and consider alternative representations framed within Strict CV (Lowenstamm 1999). As a result, the segmental inventory of these varieties is revisited and implications on our understanding of N are presented. The talk concludes with a brief discussion of the Kagoshima dialect (where N initially seems to be a proper coda consonant) and an outline of forthcoming instrumental investigations of nasality and N in the three dialects at hand. 

Selected References:
Hattori, S., K. Yamamoto & O. Fujimura. (1958). Nasalisation of vowels in relation to nasals. JASA 30, pp. 267-276.

Haraguchi, S. (1977). The tone pattern of Japanese: An autosegmental theory of tonology. Tōkyō: Kaitakusha.
Higurashi, Y. (1983). The accent of extended word structures in Tokyo standard Japanese. Tokyo: EDUCA.
Itō, J. (1987). Syllable Theory in Prosodic Phonology. New York: Garland Publishing.
Kawahara, S. (2015). ‘The phonology of Japanese accent.’ In Haruo Kubozono (ed.) The Handbook of Japanese Language and Linguistics: Phonetics and Phonology. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 445-492.

Kōri, S. (1997). Ōsaka-fū no kotoba. Tokyo: Meiji Shoin.
Labrune, L. (2012). The phonology of Japanese. Oxford: OUP.
Lowenstamm, J. (1996). CV as the Only Syllable Type. In Durand, J. & Laks, B. (eds.) Current Trends in Phonology Models and Methods. Salford: European Studies Research Institute. pp. 419-442.

McCawley, J. (1968). The Phonological component of a grammar of Japanese.
Nakano K. (1969) A phonetic basis for the syllabic nasal in Japanese. Onsei no kenkyū 14, pp.215-228.

Tronnier, M. (1996). The consonantal realisation of the mora nasal in Osaka Japanese. Lund University WPL 45, pp. 167-184.
-. (1999). Variation in Pre-Nasal vowels in Osaka Japanese. ICPHS Proceedings 1999.

Ushijima, T., and Hirose, H. (1974). Electromyographic study of the velum during speech. Journal of Phonetics 2, pp. 315–326.
Vance, T. (2008). The Sounds of Japanese. Cambridge: CUP.
Yoshida, S. (2003). ‘The syllabic nasal in Japanese’. In Ploch S. (Ed.) Living on the Edge. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Yoshida, Y. (1999). On pitch accent phenomena in Standard Japanese. The Hague: Holland Academic Graphics.

[1] I focus here on Generative representational work. See Labrune (2012) for review of the traditional literature.